The obstetrician and gynecologist often serve as consultants to other physicians and may act sometimes as primary physicians for women. They may elect to practice both obstetrics and gynecology or specialize in one or the other. Gynecologists provide complete routine care and treat problems such as abnormal bleeding and tumors of the female organs, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, and in doing so, use a variety of techniques, such as Pap smears, biopsies, culdoscopy, and may treat lesions with general surgery. The may provide counseling, treatment and care to women with fertility problems. Obstetricians provide comprehensive care to the expecting mother during pregnancy for females before and after pregnancy. Obstetricians are specially trained to diagnose and treat complications that may develop in the course of pregnancy and delivery.