Pathologists are physicians who study the nature and causes of disease and provide diagnostic testing and reports on specimens sent to the lab by other doctors. Pathologists are prepared to use their skills and knowledge for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease by means of information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells, and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids. Pathologists have the clinical training, as well as the laboratory expertise, to function as consultants to physicians practicing clinical medicine and to patients. Hundreds of tests are available. Examples include biopsy and cytology (pap smear) interpretation for cancer, blood counts and chemistries, cultures and therapeutic drug monitoring. They work closely with technologists, administrators and physicians to assure quality, accuracy and appropriate lab testing. Pathologists completing approved 4-5 year training programs after medical school may take certification exams. A certified specialist in pathology may subspecialize in the following areas: Blood Banking, Chemical Pathology, Dermatopathology, Forensic Pathology, Hematology, Immunopathology, Medical Microbiology, or Neuropathology.